Metallurgical Minutes

The 1953 introduction of RA330

In 1953, when Rolled Alloys was founded as an independent company, RA330 was introduced as a wrought alternative to cast HT, which at the time was a 35% Ni, 15% Cr alloy. In 1958, the chemistry was ...read more

RA 602 CA for the Most Severe High Temperature Applications

  RA 602 CA® is an alloy for the highest temperature applications, in most environments. This is why we call RA 602 CA the high temperature powerhouse alloy.     Cr Ni C ...read more

Heat Distortion

When metals are heated, they expand. The amount of expansion to be expected is well defined in most cases as the coefficient of thermal expansion is a commonly reported physical property for most ...read more

RA 253 MA Alloy – Still Growing, After All These Years

While RA330® has been a solid alloy choice for carburizing, nitriding and many other heat treating applications, stainless alloys such as 304H, 309 and 310 are also used extensively in industrial ...read more

Ferrite Content in Austenitic Stainless Steels

The basic 300 series stainless materials like 304/L and 316/L have an austenitic microstructure and are non-magnetic.  That is, in the annealed condition they are essentially free of ferrite, ...read more

Rust and Stains on Stainless Sheet and Plate Products

Stainless steels are, unfortunately, not always stainless. Although we strive to provide products that are clean, rust free and stain free, this is not always possible to achieve.  There are a ...read more

The Origin of Alloy 20

The origin of Alloy 20 can be traced back to the invention by Carpenter Steel in 1951. The alloy was introduced as Carpenter Stainless 20 and represented the development of a wrought alloy that was ...read more

CORROSION 2016

Rolled Alloys participated with RAMS personnel Glenn Byrne, Justinn General and Paul Whitcraft.  Some highlights of the week included: To start off the week, NACE released the final report on an...read more

6% Molybdenum Superaustenitic Alloys

This class of alloys was introduced in the early 1970s, largely in response to the need for a cost effective alloy with resistance to brackish water or seawater environments.  The main driving ...read more

Confused about Annealing / Heat Treating Terminology?

In the broadest sense annealing is the process of heating an alloy to an elevated temperature to promote a homogenous chemistry, equiaxed microstructure and uniform mechanical properties  to ...read more

Manganese Substitution Grades of Stainless Steel

During World War II when nickel shortages were severe, the stainless steel industry turned to manganese as a substitute.  Manganese is about half as effective in forming austenite as is nickel, ...read more

Searching for a Furnace Fixture Alloy?

There are many different types of furnace fixtures and many different alloys to choose from, but for many furnace and other high temperature applications, RA330® is a logical first choice. Since ...read more

Unspecified and Trace Elements

All steels and nickel alloys contain residual elements that are not required to be analyzed or reported on the Mill Test Certificate. It is not practical to analyze and report every element in the ...read more

NACE MR0175/ISO 15156/NACE MR0103

NACE International has developed two significant standards relative to the use of materials in hydrogen sulfide bearing environments. One is titled MR0175/ISO 15156, Petroleum and Natural Gas ...read more

NORSOK M630, M650

The NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry and are intended to replace oil company specifications and serve as references for industry regulations. Subject to development ...read more

Stainless and Nickel Alloy Welding

The general techniques and procedures for welding are similar for all stainless and nickel alloys. Individual alloys, or families of alloys, may require more restrictive procedures and processes, but ...read more

Flat Bar or Gauered Flat Bar from Plate

It is possible to find some on-the-shelf structural shapes in 304 and 316 stainless. Flat bar sizes are generally available and extruded shapes of the most common sizes of angles, tees and I-Beams can...read more

Ferric Chloride Corrosion Testing

ASTM has issued G48, Standard Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of Ferric Chloride Solution. G48 contains six different test ...read more

UNS N08xxx Alloys in ASTM & ASME Specs

Around 1964 a decision was jointly made within ASTM committees A01 on Steel and B02 on Non-ferrous Metals and Alloys to incorporate coverage of the high nickel stainless steel alloys into the nickel ...read more

CORROSION 2015 Conference

Rolled Alloys has been a long time participant in NACE® International – The Worldwide Corrosion Authority. NACE International was founded in 1943 by a group of corrosion engineers involved ...read more

PMI Testing

Positive Material Identification (PMI) has become more prevalent and more practical in recent years. The development of portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) units using x-ray tubes instead of isotopes ...read more

Stainless and Nickel Alloy Machining

In general terms, machining stainless and nickel alloys is more difficult than machining low alloy steels. However, there are a wide range of stainless alloy compositions and a few of them (such as ...read more

Pipe Sizes and Tolerances

Steel pipe sizes around the world are standardized on  historic dimensions that are now referred to as Nominal Pipe Sizes (NPS). In addition to standardizing the nominal outside diameter (OD), a ...read more

Facts About LME

LME – No, we’re not talking about the London Metal Exchange!  LME in this case stands for Liquid Metal Embrittlement. Molten metal can cause a variety of problems in a range of ...read more

Dual Certification

The term "dual certification" is most commonly used to refer to the practice of certifying a material as meeting the requirements of a specification(s) as two different alloys. The most common example...read more

Catastrophic Oxidation

You may have heard about, or even seen, the effects of what is termed “Catastrophic Oxidation”. This is a rapid localized metal loss due to oxidation associated with the exposure of ...read more

The Unified Numbering System

The Unified Numbering System (UNS) is an alloy identification system created in the early 1970’s and formalized with the issuance of joint standard ASTM E527 and SAE J1086 in August of 1974. The...read more

Why? Why? Why? 316Ti – UNS S31635

It is common to find a connection to a German equipment manufacturer or design. However, 316Ti is practically non-existent in North American inventory, and usually requires a mill production run. ...read more

Bar Product Terminology and Finish

The terminology used for bar products is occasionally misunderstood. General requirements, such as those for tolerances, marking, packaging, etc., are standardized in ASTM A484 for stainless bar ...read more

What are Stainless Steel Surcharges?

The purpose of the surcharge is to offset the rapid rise and fluctuating costs of raw materials that are included in each individual alloy. The surcharge is an additional charge, usually per pound, ...read more

RAMS Blog – Seeking Your Advice

Within these areas we have touched on properties and applications of established and newer alloys.  We have discussed issues to consider when ordering material, such as flatness and standard ...read more

Reading Material Test Reports

Understanding Material Test Reports (MTRs) can be difficult to the uninitiated or to those who seldom need to interpret them.  There is no standard format for reporting the required information.&...read more

Passivation

Are you seeing requirements calling for the passivation of stainless steels? Stainless steels, even the least alloyed, will passivate immediately upon exposure to air.  This is basic physical ...read more

Pitting Corrosion

What is pitting corrosion and how does it happen? Pitting corrosion is in itself a corrosion mechanism, but is also a form of corrosion often associated with other types of corrosion mechanisms. It is...read more

The Debate: Cast vs Wrought, Which is Better?

Both castings and wrought alloys have their place in the heat treating world, but learn where and when to use each. For example, cast materials typically have higher yield, tensile and creep strengths...read more

RA 602 CA: Strongest & Most Heat Resistant Alloy Available from Stock

RA602CA is a nickel base alloy that can be used for many severe high temperature applications.  This alloy nominally contains 63 Ni, 25 Cr, 2.2 Al, and small quantities of Zr, Y, and 0.2 C. ...read more

RA330: Over 60 Years of Proven Success in the Heat Treat Industry

RA330 has a proven history for use in high temperature applications, and is a very versatile material.  With a nominal composition of 35 Ni and 19 Cr, chemically it is more than a stainless steel...read more

Is there a difference between Billet and Bar?

The difference is subtle but extremely important! Billet is a semifinished round which has been partially worked, but will be further worked to final size.  Bar is finished material that has ...read more

Better, Stronger, Cheaper; RA 253MA is Your Solution

As a follow up to the recent blog entry about creep strength and what that is, you might be wondering which alloys have better creep properties than others.  Typically, creep properties follow ...read more

High Temperature Creep Rates and Creep Rupture

Creep-Rupture Why short term yield and tensile properties may not be useful at high temperatures. Metals behave much differently at high temperatures than they do near room temperature. If a metal bar...read more

Plate Product Thickness Variations

With the increased capability of hot mills to rolls heavy coil (up to ½” thick) product in stainless and nickel alloys, has come an increased awareness of the thickness variations that ...read more

Plate and Sheet Flatness

We would prefer if all plate and sheet were “flat”.  Unfortunately, the reality is quite different and the standard commercial specifications to which these products are produced ...read more

Wet Scrubber Ductwork using Rolled Alloys 253 MA

Recently, Envitech was tasked by a leading waste oil refiner in Southern California to supply and install a wet scrubber on a process gas afterburner.  The goal of the project was to reduce the ...read more

How does a brand name provide a benefit?

ZERON 100 Super Duplex Compared to Generic S32760 Super Duplex. ZERON® 100, developed as a wrought super duplex in the 1980s, was given the code UNS S32760 in 1989.  Since that time several ...read more

REACH

REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals) is the system for controlling chemicals in the EU. It was adopted by the European Union on December 18, 2006. It became law...read more

Polysilicon plant in China selects RA330 for longer life.

In the U.S., RA330 is the workhorse of the heat resistant alloys. It has good strength, carburization and oxidation resistance to 1150℃. If the application is in high working temperature with ...read more

NORSOK M 650 Requirements

Why are customers asking for products manufactured by Norsok M650 qualified mills? Oil and Gas Customers increasingly ask for products manufactured by NORSOK M 650 qualified mills. NORSOK M 650 is a ...read more

What is alloy sensitization?

What alloys are prone to sensitization and how to avoid it? Sensitization refers to the precipitation of carbides at grain boundaries in a stainless steel or alloy, causing the alloy to be ...read more

Looking for an EN10204, 3.2 Certification?

EN10204 is a Euronorm (issued by the European Community) specification that describes different types of material test reports and certifications.  The standard contains no requirements relative ...read more

Does choosing the best material for the job have you stymied?

It isn’t an exact science and it is often necessary to be guided by past experience and to make informed judgments based on sometimes incomplete information or data. Consider using the expertise...read more

Selecting a Material for High Temperature Service

Having trouble selecting materials for applications in high temperature environments? The checklist below will help with the questions that you will need to ask for proper material selection. It is ...read more

How to weld Duplex Stainless Steel

I often receive questions on the correct parameters for welding duplex stainless steels. There seems to be a lot of confusion on which practices and quality checks are best. I also notice that each ...read more

EEMUA 218

Why controlling the procedure is just as important as controlling the end product? The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association (EEMUA) out of England has been increasingly concerned with...read more

ZERON 100 Selected to Replace C-276 Heat Exchanger Tubes

A Spanish hydrometallurgical plant was using C-276 heat exchanger tubing to heat a raffinate solution.  The tubes had steam on the outside at 155°C (inlet) to 100°C (outlet) and raffinate...read more

How does RA 253 MA compared to 309 and 310?

The main differences between RA 253 MA and both 309 and 310 stainless steel are the additions of cerium, increased silicon and nitrogen to RA 253 MA. RA 253 MA also has a lower alloy content of nickel...read more

Do You Use Silicon-Carbide Hearth Plates?

Nickel-base or nickel rich alloys are highly suited for high temperature application, especially carburising ones. This makes them attractive and suitable for high temperature environment; heat ...read more

How to Measure Tensile Strength, Elastic Modulus, and Ductility

Tensile Strength Tensile strength, or ultimate tensile strength, measures a metal’s resistance to breaking or pulling apart in two pieces.  To find out how strong a wire is, one could just ...read more

Visit Rolled Alloys at the Global Petroleum Show; June 12-14, 2012

Rolled Alloys is exhibiting at the Global Petroleum Show Expo and Conference in Calgary, Alberta.  We will have representatives from our sales, marketing, procurement, and technical groups ...read more

Have you heard of the 2205 failures in FGD units?

Rolled Alloys has completed a full corrosion study comparing 2205 to ZERON 100, AL-6XN and C-276 in typical FGD service. You may or may not be familiar with Flue Gas Desulfurization or the issues ...read more

Sigma Formation

Do you know what elements cause sigma formation? Will 310S or 304H have more resistance to sigma formation? All of our nickel-bearing stainless and nickel base alloys have an austenitic structure, ...read more

Galvanic Corrosion

Here is a good paper written by Roger Francis on “Galvanic Corrosion of High Alloy Stainless Steels in Sea Water” The coupling of dissimilar metals in conducting, corrosive solutions such ...read more

Thermal Fatigue Cracking

Thermal fatigue cracking is the cracking that happens after a metal is repeatedly heated and cooled rapidly. Heat resistant alloys all have high coefficients of thermal expansion; most of which expand...read more

ZERON 100 at OTC in Houston

As nickel alloys climb in price, duplex and superduplex stainless steels are in high demand for many oil and gas applications.  Rolled Alloys has supplied all product forms of ZERON 100 for ...read more

Sulfidation

Environments containing sulfur may rapidly attack high nickel alloys. The problem is more severe under reducing, or low oxygen, environments. The higher the nickel content of the alloy the more ...read more

Rolled Alloys Services the Oil & Gas Industry

With a broad selection of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, the oil and gas market is a good fit for Rolled Alloys.  What you may not know is that Rolled Alloys also offers ...read more

Carburizing

Carburizing is one of the most commonly performed steel heat treatments. For perhaps three thousand years it was performed by packing the low carbon wrought iron parts in charcoal, then raising the ...read more

Selecting Filler Metals for Dissimilar Alloy Welding

Have you ever wondered what is the best filler metal for welding two different alloys together? A common question I receive is the proper alloy filler metal for joining two dissimilar metals.  ...read more

RA330 (N08330) – The Ageless Heat Resistant Alloy

RA330 has been the alloy of choice in the heat treating industry for almost 60 years. With the ability to withstand extreme temperatures up to 2100°F and the endurance to handle heavily cyclic ...read more

What is a Duplex Stainless Steel?

Did you know that duplex stainless steels such as LDX2101 lean duplex (UNS S32101), 2205 (S32205) and ZERON® 100 super duplex (S32760) are made up of two phases? Unlike 300 series stainless steels...read more

ZERON 100 (S32760) is a Cost Saving Option for Seawater

ZERON 100 (S32760) is a superduplex stainless steel with 50% austenite and 50% ferrite. This gives the alloy the benefits of the austenitic microstructure, such as ductility, and also those of the ...read more

RA 253 MA Round Bar

RA 253 MA has twice the creep strength of 310 stainless above temperatures of 1600F and has great oxidation resistance up to 2000F, similar to that of 310. However, you may not have known that the ...read more

Rolled Alloys paper presented at EPRI Conference in Orlando

On June 23, Devin Wachowiak gave a presentation at the EPRI Conference in Orlando, FL on the successes of AL-6XN and ZERON 100 in pollution control, more specifically for applications within Flue Gas ...read more